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2018-10-15 22:38:47

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英语动词的时态

  导语:有人说掌握好了动词就相当于掌握了一般的英语知识,那么与其相关的动词时态也是很重要的,希望整理的这个对大家有帮助。

  一般现在时表将来

  1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

  The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

  When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

  2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如:

  Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

  There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

  3)在时间或条件句中。例如:

  When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。

  I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。

  4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等的宾语从句中。例如:

  I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心。

  Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room. 离开房间前,务必把窗户关了。

  用现在进行时表示将来

  下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等现在进行时可以表示将来。例如:

  I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

  Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

  现在完成时

  现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。其构成:have (has) +过去分词。

  比较一般过去时与现在完成时

  1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

  2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

  一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,皆为具体的时间状语。

  现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always等,皆不确定的时间状语。

  共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。

  3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.。

  一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。例如:

  I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

  I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

  Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

  Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争)

  He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)

  He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)

  句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

  (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

  (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

  用于现在完成时的句型

  1)It is the first / second time.... that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

  It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

  This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

  注意:It was the third time that the boy had been late.

  2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时。例如:

  This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。

  过去完成时

  1) 概念:表示过去的过去

  ----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是had +过去分词构成。

  那时以前  那时  现在

  2) 用法

  a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。例如:

  She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。

  b. 状语从句

  在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。例如:

  When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。

  c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"。例如:

  We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

  3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。例如:

  He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。

  By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。

  Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

  汤姆失望了,因为他到达晚会时,大部分客人已经走了。

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